- 1 Also known as
- 2 Classification
- 3 Overview
- 4 Medical usage
- 5 What does it look like?
- 6 Source
- 7 Street price
- 8 Why take it?
- 9 Dosage
- 10 How long do its effects last?
- 11 Pharmacology
- 12 Mode of use
- 13 Signs of usage
- 14 Effects
- 15 Risks
- 16 Purity
- 17 Addiction
- 18 Dangerous interactions
- 19 Withdrawal
- 20 Legality
- 21 Harm reduction
- 22 Statistics
- 23 History
- 24 References
Also known as
MXE, mket, mexxy, roflcoptr, rhino ket, mexi, minx, jipper
Hallucinogenic, sedative, antidepressant.
Methoxetamine is a man-made 'designer drug' known to have similarities in both chemistry and effect to ketamine .
Methoxetamine (also known as mexxy or MXE). Although there is very little evidence about its short and long term effects, we do know that it is chemically related to 'dissociative anaesthetics' like ketamine and PCP, and has similar effects. From anecdotal reports, methoxetamine appears to be much stronger than ketamine, so users should take extra care to avoid overdosing by only using small amounts.
Methoxetamine is being marketed as a replacement for ketamine, but without ketamine's harmful effect on the bladder. Ketamine causes very serious bladder problems with severe pain and difficulty passing urine, which can lead to surgical removal of the bladder. There is no evidence to support the suggestion that methoxetamine is safer than ketamine in this regard. Ketamine's harmful effect on the bladder has itself only been recently discovered after many years of its use and it is possible that over time methoxetamine will turn out to be just as harmful to the bladder .
Arylcyclohexylamines were originally developed as anesthetics in the 1960's .
What does it look like?
White powder .
Methoxetamine is a chemical of the arylcyclohexylamine class. It is a derivative of Ketamine and PCP. Methoxetamine is synthesised in laboratories overseas and it has been sold online as 'research chemicals' .
The average cost per gram was between £18 and £25 .
Why take it?
Sought after effects
- distortion of senses,
- dissociative state (feeling of detachment from the body and the wider world) ,
- warmth and detachment,
- reduced anxiety .
- blurred vision,
- sometimes nausea and headaches,
- may cause memory problems if used long-term .
- threshold - 5 - 10 mg , 10 - 15 mgs .
- light - 10 - 25 mg , 15 - 25 mgs .
- common - 25 - 45 mg , 25 - 35 mgs .
- strong - 45 - 70 mg , 40 - 65 mgs .
- heavy - 70 mg + ,
- hole - 75 mg + .
- threshold - 5 - 10 mg,
- light - 10 - 20 mg,
- common - 20 - 35 mg,
- strong - 35 - 60 mg,
- heavy - 60 mgs + .
- hole - 70 mgs + .
- threshold - 5 - 10 mg,
- low - 10 - 20 mg,
- common - 40 - 60 mg,
- strong - 60 - 75 mg,
- hole - 75 - 100 mg .
How long do its effects last?
Onset of effects
- oral - 15 - 30 minutes , 30 - 60 minutes .
- insufflated - 5 - 0 minutes .
- sublingual - 15 - 45 minutes .
- insufflated - 30 - 75 minutes .
Duration of effects
- oral - 4 - 6 hours , 3 - 6 hours .
- insufflated - 3 - 5 hours , 3 - 6 hours .
- sublingual - 3 - 6 hours .
- oral - 2 - 48 hours .
- insufflated - 4 - 48 hours , 2 - 48 hours .
- sublingual - 2 - 48 hours .
Although the effects and the chemical structures of methoxetamine closely resemble ketamine, the pharmacology of this drug is currently very limited. It is most likely to work by NMDA receptors as an antagonist .
Mode of use
Swallowed or sniffed .
The white powder is snorted up the nose, or may be dissolved in water or placed in the mouth and dissolved; it can also be swallowed ('bombed'). It can also be injected intramuscularly or used rectally .
Reportedly, because of its strength, only small pinches (or 'bumps') of MXE are snorted - and not full lines. The average dose appears to be between 20 mg - 100 mg.
Some people prefer to dissolve it in water or place it under their tongue, where it's dissolved and taken into the blood stream. But it can also be swallowed ('bombed') or injected.
Injecting is a particularly risky route for overdose. And by injecting and sharing injecting equipment, including needles and syringes, users run the risk of catching or spreading a virus, such as HIV or hepatitis C. There is also the risk that veins may be damaged and that something nasty will develop, such as an abscess or a clot .
Signs of usage
- taking larger amounts of the drug over time,
- repeated failed attempts to cut down,
- spending long periods of time acquiring, taking, and/or recovering from the drug ,
- intense feelings of happiness (euphoria),
- reduced feelings of depression,
- increased empathy,
- increased introspection,
- a sense of peacefulness and calm,
- feeling out of one's body,
- enhanced sensory experiences,
- dissociation (referred to as the "m-hole"),
- spiritual and transcendent experiences .
- memory loss,
- ridiculous behaviour,
- panic/anxiety attacks,
- depersonalisation .
- a sense of intense happiness, or euphoria,
- enhanced empathy,
- increased sociability,
- feelings of peace and calm,
- heightened sensory experiences,
- visual hallucinations,
- increased introspection,
- out-of-body sensations,
- spiritual and transcendent experiences .
- dissociative toxidrome,
- loss of social interaction,
- possible loss of frontal lobe mass or bladder integrity,
- stimulant psychosis .
- physical autonomy,
- physical euphoria,
- spatial disorientation,
- spontaneous physical sensations,
- motor control loss,
- orgasm suppression,
- pain relief,
- perception of bodily lightness,
- tactile suppression,
- optical sliding .
- cognitive euphoria,
- compulsive redosing,
- conceptual thinking,
- déjà vu,
- time distortion,
- analysis enhancement,
- creativity enhancement,
- dream potentiation,
- immersion enhancement,
- increased libido,
- increased music appreciation,
- personal meaning enhancement,
- anxiety suppression,
- decreased libido,
- information processing suppression,
- memory suppression,
- thought deceleration,
- existential self-realisation,
- unity and interconnectedness .
- environmental cubism,
- environmental orbism,
- perspective distortions,
- scenery slicing,
- acuity suppression,
- double vision,
- frame rate suppression,
- pattern recognition suppression,
- visual disconnection,
- autonomous entities,
- external hallucinations,
- internal hallucinations,
- perspective alterations,
- scenarios and plots,
- settings, sceneries, and landscapes .
- auditory distortion,
- auditory hallucinations,
- auditory suppression .
- mood lift,
- sense of calm and serenity,
- vivid recall of past memories and dreams,
- closed- and open-eye visuals (common),
- out-of-body experience (less intense then ketamine) .
- distortion or loss of sensory perceptions (common),
- dissociation of mind from body,
- significant change in perception of time,
- increase in heart rate,
- disorientation .
- risk of psychological dependency,
- nasal discomfort upon insufflation,
- blacking out and forgetting one has taken a drug,
- discomfort, pain or numbness at injection site (with IM),
- severe confusion,
- disorganised thinking,
- vertigo, spinning sensation (risk of injury),
- susceptibility to accidents (from uncoordination and change in perception of body and time),
- severe dissociation,
- loss of consciousness,
- depression of heart rate and respiration (risk increases with increased dose or when combined with depressants),
- entity contact .
- slurred speech,
- difficulty with communication,
- fear and/or paranoia,
- a distorted sense of time, distance, and body image,
- a sensation of being near death,
- muscle incoordination,
- vomiting .
In some cases, use may lead to toxicity, also known as an methoxetamine overdose, which can occur when too much of the drug accumulates in a person's body . Methoxetamine toxicity can cause a range of psychiatric, cognitive, neurological, and cardiovascular problems -
- significant anxiety,
- auditory hallucinations,
- visual hallucinations,
- violent behaviour .
- memory loss,
- poor awareness of one's surroundings .
- difficulty with movement and bodily control,
- pupil dilation,
- sleep disturbances .
- rapid heart rate,
- high blood pressure,
- breathing problems,
- chest pains .
The dissociative effects of methoxetamine make users feel detached from their body and surroundings, this could put users in danger of accidents or being hurt by others. In high doses users may experience a catatonic state which is a severe form of dissociation, when the user will be awake motionless and unresponsive. Individuals in this state make little or no eye contact with others, be mute and rigid for long periods. Also compulsive redosing and overdose .
Little is known about the potential toxicity of methoxetamine, but people have been hospitalised in the US and UK after using it recreationally. There is potential for psychological dependency .
There is virtually no evidence about this yet, but early tests have found methoxetamine that was cut with benzocaine and caffeine. It's possible that what you think is methoxetamine is a different drug instead, with different effects and risks. One sample that was tested containedmephedrone, a class B drug .
Can you get addicted
There's no direct evidence on whether you can become physically or psychologically dependent on methoxetamine, but we do know that you can become dependent on ketamine. Because they are chemically related, it's reasonable to assume that you may be able to become dependent on methoxetamine .
Health professionals use the term "substance use disorder" to diagnose problematic drug use in clients . Signs and symptoms of a substance use disorder include -
- taking more of the drug than intended,
- feeling unable to cut down or stop using the drug,
- spending a long time acquiring, using, or recovering from the drug,
- strong urges to use,
- difficulty carrying out responsibilities at work, home, or school because of drug use,
- continuing to use despite problems in relationships,
- giving up activities that were once important because of drug use,
- using in dangerous situations like driving or operating machinery,
- continuing to use the drug despite physical and psychological problems associated with use,
- developing a tolerance (experiencing less of an effect with the same amount of the drug or needing larger amounts in order to achieve the desired effects),
- withdrawal symptoms upon stopping the drug .
Although many drugs are safe on their own, they can become dangerous and even life-threatening when combined with other substances. The list below contains some common potentially dangerous combinations, but may not include all of them. Certain combinations may be safe in low doses of each but still increase the potential risk of death. Independent research should always be done to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe before consumption .
- Depressants - This combination potentiates the muscle relaxation, sedation and amnesia caused by one another and can lead to unexpected loss of consciousness at high doses. There is also an increased risk of vomiting during unconsciousness and death from the resulting suffocation. If this occurs, users should attempt to fall asleep in the recovery position or have a friend move them into it. Examples include benzodiazepines, GBL / GHB, 2M2B, opioids, and most commonly, alcohol.
- Stimulants - This combination typically potentiates the anxiety-inducing, manic, delusional and disinhibiting aspects of dissociatives, particularly those without pronounced motor and consciousness-suppression components, like ketamine does, which can increase the likelihood of a panic event or psychotic episode. Prominent examples include PCP and its analogs 3-MeO-PCP, MXE, as well as diarylethylamine class dissociatives like diphenidine or ephenidine. There is also evidence that suggests that combining these two increases their neurotoxicity. Anecdotally, worsened comedowns are also commonly reported when these two classes of substances are combined .
- Alcohol - There is a high risk of memory loss, vomiting and severe ataxia from this combination.
- GBL / GHB - Both substances cause ataxia and bring a risk of vomiting and unconsciousness. If the patient falls unconscious while under the influence there is a severe risk of vomit aspiration if they are not placed in the recovery position.
- Opioids - This combination can potentiate the effects of the opioid.
- Tramadol .
- MAOIs - MAO-B inhibitors appear to increase the potency of methoxetamine. MAO-A inhbitors have some negative reports associated with the combination but there isn't much information available .
- impaired cognition,
- difficulty sleeping,
- suicidal thoughts and behaviours .
From 26th February 2013 methoxetamine has become a Class B drug under the Misuse of Drugs Act. This means it is now illegal to have, sell or supply methoxetamine, including giving it away to friends .
- Possession of products containing methoxetamine can get you up to five years in jail and/or an unlimited fine.
- Supplying someone else, including your friends, can get you fourteen years in jail and/or an unlimited fine .
Did you know?
Like drinking and driving, driving when high is illegal - and you may still be unfit to drive the day after using methoxetamine. You can get a heavy fine, be disqualified from driving or even go to prison .
In comparison to ketamine, the drug is seen to be more potent, and therefore the dosage needed is much lower. Methoxetamine can be induced in a number of different ways such as sniffing, oral consumption, rectally and injected. The recommended way to administer the drug is by sniffing or 'bombing' it orally. Do not inject as there is a far greater risk of overdose as well as the risk of blood-borne-viruses.
As the drug is much more potent than ketamine it is advised that one takes a test dose of just a few milligrams first; wait two hours to see if there are any negative effects and then re-dose (small quantities) if it is desired. There is very little research done on how much a person should take, due to this still being a research chemical .
- methoxetamine use increased significantly in the United States between 2011 and 2012, just 2 years after the drug emerged on the market,
- during the same years, methoxetamine use decreased in the United Kingdom, which may be related to laws passed in 2012 banning methoxetamine,
- There continue to be no federal regulations on methoxetamine in the United States, but a handful of states have enacted laws criminalizing the drug ,
- as of 2015, a reported 126 nonfatal overdoses and 22 deaths involved use of methoxetamine .
This drug is very new to the market. It is suggested that methoxetamine was initially synthesised for treatment for chronic pain. The drug first appeared for sale in 2010, and increased in popularity over 2011 .
- Methoxetamine, 2017, http://www.release.org.uk/drugs/methoxetamine
- Methoxetamine, 2017, http://www.talktofrank.com/drug/methoxetamine
- Methoxetamine, 2014, http://www.dan247.org.uk/Drug_Methoxetamine.asp
- Methoxetamine, 2017, https://psychonautwiki.org/wiki/Methoxetamine
- MXE, 2017, http://drugs.tripsit.me/mxe
- MXE, 2017, http://drugabuse.com/?s=MXE
- MXE Drug Abuse, 2017, http://drugabuse.com/?s=MXE
- Methoxetamine, 2013, http://wiki.bluelight.org/index.php/Methoxetamine
- Methoxetamine, 2017, https://wiki.tripsit.me/wiki/Methoxetamine
- Lawn, W. and Borschmann, R. and Cottrell, A. and Winstock, A., Methoxetamine: Prevalence of use in the USA and UK and associated urinary problems, Journal of Substance Use, 2016, 21, 2, 115-120, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/266624393_Methoxetamine_Prevalence_of_use_in_the_USA_and_UK_and_associated_urinary_problems
- WHO, Methoxetamine (MXE): Critical review report, World Health Organisation, 2015, http://www.who.int/medicines/access/controlled-substances/5.9_Methoxetamine_CRev.pdf